Research on the effects of parenting styles on children has indicated that the more authoritative a parent is, the more likely their children will be to achieve academic success and self-esteem. This article will examine the relationship between different parenting styles and the development of adolescents. The article also discusses the relationship between parenting styles and alcohol abuse, suicide, and adolescent depressive symptoms. So, what is the difference between authoritative and passive parents?
Relationships between parenting style and suicidal tendencies
Parents’ perceived authority and conflict in the home may influence their children’s suicidal ideas and behaviors. In a recent study, children of mothers who were overly authoritarian had nearly double the risk of suicide ideation and deliberate self-harm than their counterparts with parents who showed a high level of emotional control and warmth. Furthermore, adolescents exposed to violence and abuse were found to be at double the risk of suicide than those exposed to parents who were less abusive.
The findings were not unexpected, given the high number of suicides in the world. A study conducted in Malaysia found a significant relationship between parenting style and suicidal behavior among children. However, it was not possible to determine causality in a cross-sectional study. Longitudinal studies of these children are needed to determine whether the parenting style of a parent influences the development of suicidal tendencies.
Association between parenting style and adolescent depression
Despite a strong correlation between parental care and depressive symptoms in young adolescents, the present study shows that there is a reciprocal relationship between parenting style and adolescence depression. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediate the path from parenting style to POGU. Further, these findings expand our understanding of the complex relations between adolescents and their families in China. Finally, they provide reference recommendations for prevention and intervention of depression and POGU among adolescents.
Several factors may explain the association between parental depression and adolescent depression. Positive parenting style is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents. A protective factor for male adolescents was authoritative parenting style. The protective effect was stronger for boys than for girls. Positive parental identification was related to less depressive symptoms in adolescents at later ages. Nonetheless, there were negative parenting styles that were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms in adolescents.
Effects of parenting style on parental cohesion
A recent study found that adolescents’ expectations for behavioral autonomy and their belief in parental authority mediated the relationship between parenting style and parental cohesion. Parents who modeled more authoritarian parenting styles experienced fewer conflicts with adolescents, and adolescents endorsed their parents’ authority more strongly. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of adolescents’ attitudes and values on family cohesion. This study will provide new insights into how parental style can influence adolescents’ expectations for behavioral autonomy.
Previous research tended to focus on one or the other, with conflict not necessarily a negative trait. However, it is important to note that an increase in one attribute does not necessarily reduce another. In addition, most studies failed to differentiate between conflict intensity and conflict frequency. Intensity refers to the degree of emotional arousal experienced during conflict. While parents who practice authoritative parenting were found to have higher parental cohesion, those who modeled neglectful parenting were less likely to have high parent-child conflict.
Relationship between parenting style and alcohol abuse
Researchers from Brigham Young University looked at the relationship between parental style and the risk of alcohol abuse in adolescents. They recruited 4,983 adolescents from grades 7 to 12. The researchers used a structural equation model to estimate associations between parenting styles and alcohol abuse. Those who practice authoritative parenting are associated with lower alcohol abuse risk, while those who practice permissive parenting are associated with higher alcohol abuse risk. The authors concluded that the most effective parenting style may be to adopt a combination of both.
The study found that a more authoritative parenting style influenced children’s alcohol use than did an indulgent or neglectful approach. Children who had a nurturing, authoritative mother were more likely to stop drinking alcohol. However, adolescents whose parents were indulgent were less likely to refrain from substance abuse. Indulgent parents were seen as the most caring, showing the greatest affection, and demanding little in return for mature behavior.